29 Finest Vegetation for Your Rain Backyard

It’s hard to find plants that can handle soggy soils without succumbing to root rot, yet many areas of our yards and gardens temporarily turn into puddles when it rains. You’re in the right place if you don’t know what to plant in extra-moist areas.

A rain garden is a low-lying area where native flowers, shrubs, grasses, and perennial herbs are planted to absorb rainwater runoff. Rain gardens allow runoff from roofs, driveways, and lawns to soak into the soil, preventing nutrient leaching and chemical pollution of waterways. 

Each time it rains, water flows off your roof, down your gutters, across your driveway, and over your lawn. Moving water picks up pollutants along the way, including chemicals, fertilizer, oil, bacteria, and sediments.

If this unfiltered water flows into the street and down your storm drain, it ends up in nearby streams and ponds. As this process repeats during every rain event, waterways rapidly become polluted, causing widespread ecological damage. 

Think of a rain garden as a natural filtration system. The right community of plants in a strategic location can capture runoff rainwater before it drifts into the street and ecosystem. Rain gardens filter the water through vegetation roots and soil microorganisms to remove pollutants, prevent flooding, and recharge the groundwater.

But not every species is up for this honorable task. Let’s dig into the 29 best plants for a rain garden and how you can plan a self-maintaining system of water purification right in your yard.

What is a Rain Garden?

Rain gardens are depressed areas with plants filtering runoff to prevent pollution in local waterways.

A rain garden is a depressed, low-lying area specifically planted with perennial plants to absorb and filter rainwater runoff. A combination of native flowers, herbs, shrubs, and grasses can filter pollutants, prevent flooding, and provide resources for local wildlife. Rain gardens are designed to improve drainage and infiltration of water into the soil near a roof, driveway, or street so that contaminated runoff doesn’t enter local waterways. 

Properties of Rain Garden Plants

A sunlit xeriscape garden showcasing waterwise plants of various hues and textures. The bright sunlight highlights the succulents and drought-resistant foliage, creating a vibrant mosaic. Adjacent to the garden, a collection of rocks adds a natural, earthy contrast.
The best rain garden plants must resist root rot and thrive in high moisture settings.

The best plants for rain gardens share a few key attributes that allow them to thrive in conditions with constantly varying moisture.

Response to Moisture:

  • Resistance to Rot: Plants susceptible to root rot should not be grown in a rain garden. These species need to be durable and tolerant of high soil moisture levels. However, they do not need to be wetland plants, as a rain garden should not be oversaturated all the time.
  • Deep and Wide Root Systems: The deeper the roots, the better plants can stabilize the soil to prevent erosion and ensure proper water infiltration. Taproot plants excel at breaking up compaction layers, while fibrous root systems help capture sediment and create microchannels for water to flow through. Ideally, you have a variation of different root types to create a stronger soil structure.
  • Moisture Adaptability: Rain gardens aren’t always wet, so these plants must be willing to endure drastic fluctuations in moisture throughout the season. Heavy rainfalls and long dry spells may challenge fragile cultivated ornamentals, but hardy native species tend to hold up to the challenge.
  • Permeable Groundcover: It’s vital that no soil surface is left bare. Otherwise, it will get eroded and cease to function in the rain garden. Ground cover plants protect the topsoil while providing a permeable airspace for rain to infiltrate.

Ecological Benefits:

  • Pollutant Tolerance and Filtration: Stormwater runoff picks up many pollutants as it flows from suburban and urban areas into the garden. Some plants are more sensitive to soil pollutants, while others can help remediate and remove contaminants. Choose species that can withstand pollutants and aid in soil remediation. 
  • Low Maintenance: A rain garden should not need regular maintenance like a vegetable garden. These plants may need a once-annual pruning or some help to get established but should otherwise fend for themselves. Native species tend to be the lowest maintenance because they’re adapted to your area’s soil and climate patterns.
  • Ecological Support: Rain gardens dual-function as pollinator and wildlife habitat. A biodiverse combination of flowers, herbs, and grasses helps to support a range of local species, from birds to bees to butterflies to beneficial beetles. If located near your veggie or fruit garden, they may even aid in biological pest control.
  • Visually Appealing: Nobody wants an eye sore in their yard, no matter how many ecological benefits it may provide. Interestingly, the most visually appealing rain gardens also tend to be the most functional because the diverse range of plants thrive while they do their job.

29 Best Rain Garden Plant Species

Rose Mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos)

A close-up of white rose mallow flowers with red centers, showcasing delicate petals and intricate details. The surrounding foliage complements the blooms, adding lushness to the scene. A blurred green background accentuates the vivid beauty of the blossoms.
This plant thrives in moist to wet soils with mulch support in dry summers.

Also known as swamp hibiscus, rose mallow blooms large, showy flowers up to 8” across. This dense perennial shrub is native to the southern and eastern U.S.

It tolerates very moist to wet soils rich in organic matter and moderately acidic. Mulch is useful for rose mallow when growing in areas with long, dry summers.

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

A cluster of switchgrass featuring delicate pink seedheads. The switchgrass stands tall amid a lush landscape, complemented by various vibrant green grasses surrounding it. The pink-hued seedheads add a distinct flair to the overall greenery of the scene.
Switchgrass is ideal for rain gardens due to its wide-ranging natural growth conditions.

This perennial prairie grass is one of the main species of native North American tallgrass prairies. Its natural range spans from southern Canada to Mexico through almost all of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. This grass naturally grows in a range of conditions, from dry prairies to pastures to brackish marshes, making it perfect for a rain garden setting.

Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis)

A close-up of cardinal flowers, resplendent in a rich red hue, bask in the warm sunlight. The blurred backdrop reveals a tapestry of more cardinal flowers, creating a captivating symphony of nature's crimson beauty.
Cardinal flower grows in rain gardens due to its adaptability to continuous moisture.

This attractive perennial wildflower blooms big red flowers in terminal spikes. Wild Lobelia is native to most of the United States, growing wild in ditches, ravines, streambanks, and landscape depressions.

The location of cardinal flower in the wild is a blatant giveaway to its adaptability in a rain garden. It requires continuous moisture and benefits from winter mulch protection in colder climates.

Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis)

A close-up of white buttonbush, featuring delicate, spherical clusters of small, white flowers nestled amidst ovate leaves. Each blossom consists of numerous tiny florets, forming a charming globe-shaped inflorescence. 
This plant thrives in wet environments with its unique, attractive blooms.

The handsome spike-ball flowers of buttonbush are as attractive to bees as they are to humans. It’s almost hard to believe that something so unique and beautiful is a swampy wildflower. Buttonbush is native to the eastern U.S. and particularly thrives in swamps, streambanks, and prairie swales. 

It tolerates poor drainage and standing water and grows as a spreading, multi-branched shrub. The pincushion flowers are great for native bees, and the button-like fruit balls yield seeds beloved by ducks and other waterbirds.

Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)

A close-up of small clusters of purple swamp milkweed flowers, each with delicate petals. The blooms form beautiful, intricate patterns against the green backdrop. Blurred foliage underneath accentuates the vividness of the purple blossoms.Swamp milkweed thrives effortlessly in rain gardens due to its love of waterlogged soil.

This tall, showy perennial produces gorgeous rose-to-purple flowers with very little effort. As a major host plant for monarch butterflies, swamp milkweed earns its space in rain and butterfly gardens. 

Named for the Greek god of medicine, Asklepios, milkweed is native to nearly every state in the U.S. (excluding California, Arizona, Oregon, Washington, and Mississippi). It grows prolifically in sunny swamps, marshes, bogs, ditches, and streambanks, thriving in waterlogged to slightly moist soil. As long as it never fully dries out, swamp milkweed thrives in a rain garden. 

Winterberry (Ilex verticillata)

A winterberry branch featuring red berries nestled amid glossy, dark green leaves. The berries stand out vividly against the foliage, offering a striking contrast, a festive touch against the deep green backdrop.
This red-berried small tree thrives in various soils.

Add some winter interest to your native rain garden with this red-berried small tree. Though it is a member of the holly family, winterberry does not have the sharp-toothed leaves of other hollies.

It naturally grows near lakes, ponds, and riverbanks as a short tree with attractive green foliage. Native to the eastern U.S., it tolerates a range of soils and doesn’t mind poor drainage. Pollinators love the flower nectar, and migrating birds benefit from the fruit.

Little Bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)

Slender blades of little bluestem grass dance gracefully, painting the landscape with their green hues. These resilient grasses contribute to the ecosystem's biodiversity while adding an aesthetically pleasing touch to the environment.
Little bluestem can withstand drought conditions but is intolerant of standing water.

This ornamental bunchgrass has fine foliage that grows in dense, attractive mounds. It gets its name from the slender greenish-blue stems that reach up to 5 feet tall in the fall, then turn dark mahogany in color. The white seed tufts are very pretty and remain through winter. 

As a mid-prairie species, little bluestem is native to open plains and pastures throughout the Midwest, east coast, and southern U.S. It tolerates drought but can’t handle standing water or wetlands. It also self-sows readily, so be sure to keep it contained by snipping off the seed heads in the fall.

Virginia Wild Rye (Elymus virginicus)

A close-up of a Virginia wild rye plant, showcasing deep purple hues. The blurred backdrop reveals abundant, vibrant foliage, enhancing the vividness of the rye. A rich, textured display of nature's colors and textures in focus.
A wild perennial grass, Virginia wild rye thrives in partially shaded areas with good drainage.

The fibrous roots of this wild perennial grass are wonderful at anchoring soil particles in a rain garden. Native to open woodlands and shaded banks throughout the midwestern and eastern U.S., this species is best suited to partially shaded areas with improved drainage.

The seed husks (“awns”) are sharp and are reported to harm dog paws and eyes, so don’t plant this in areas frequented by pets.

Arrowwood Viburnum (Viburnum dentatum)

An arrowwood viburnum branch adorned with clusters of purple berries nestled amid green leaves. The blurred background depicts a rich garden landscape with various plants and foliage, creating a serene backdrop for the vibrant berries.
Arrowwood viburnum is a deciduous shrub native to moist areas.

This native deciduous shrub can grow up to 5-10 feet tall and enjoys moist yet well-drained soil. It grows naturally along streams, ponds, and bogs and produces pretty, flat-topped clusters of white flowers that butterflies and bees adore.

In the late summer, the clusters turn to bluish-black berries. The shallow, branched roots hold topsoil in place and provide a nice complement to tap-rooted species like black-eyed Susans

Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)

A close-up reveals a purple wild bergamot flower resting upon lush green leaves. The flower displays a clustered arrangement of tiny tubular blossoms. In the backdrop, similar flowers and verdant foliage create a blurred, natural tapestry.
This thrives in consistently moist soil, supporting pollinators with its lavender-pink flowers and adaptable nature.

Also known as wild bee balm, you probably know that Monarda species are incredibly beneficial to pollinators, but they are also highly adaptable. Wild bergamot enjoys consistently moist soil and doesn’t mind a little bit of waterlogging as long as there is no standing water. The lavender-pink flowers and aromatic leaves add ornamental value throughout the season and grow easily from seed.

New England Aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae)

Vivid purple New England aster blossoms burst open, their delicate petals unfurling gracefully. Some blossoms boast radiant yellow centers, while others feature profound, rich purple centers, creating a captivating floral spectacle in nature's gallery.
Consider planting New England aster in runoff collection areas for its erosion-preventing deep roots.

Many people plant this wild aster simply for its vibrant purple blooms, so why not integrate it into a low-lying runoff collection area? Its resilience in moist conditions and deep root system is beneficial for preventing soil erosion and stabilizing the soil after heavy storms. Despite its New England name, it is native to almost all of the United States and is very easy to cultivate in a variety of climates.

Dogwood (Cornus spp.)

Bunches of delicate white dogwood flowers bloom amidst green leaves, creating a picturesque scene. The sunlight gently bathes the flowers, accentuating their delicate petals and creating a serene, natural scene.
Dogwoods flourish in sunny, moist, yet well-drained soil, with specific varieties suitable for different regions.

With their distinctively four-petaled flowers, dogwoods can grow as large shrubs to medium-sized trees. They thrive in full sun and enjoy moist yet well-drained soil. Red osier dogwood (C. sericea) is an awesome choice for northern areas, and Pacific dogwood (C. nuttallii) is ideal for western regions. In extra rainy areas, keep dogwood a little higher up on the margins of your rain garden, as these plants don’t do as well in low spots where water may pool up.

Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata)

A close-up of a blue vervain seedhead, showcasing delicate purple flowers amidst tiny pods. Each pod bears minute seeds surrounded by slender stems, creating an intricate cluster against a blurred backdrop.
This plant grows in varied landscapes, from mucky soil near rain gardens to medium moisture slopes.

The pretty spike-shaped flowers of vervain are remarkably flexible in the landscape. You can plant this flower at the base of a rain garden where the soil gets extra mucky or along a slope with medium moisture. Hardy in zones 3 to 9, this native perennial wildflower can also withstand periods of drought, but it may not flower as vibrantly.

Wild Geranium (Geranium maculatum)

A close-up of purple wild geranium blooms in intricate detail. The flower's center showcases a cluster of tiny, intricate structures, inviting observers to appreciate nature's exquisite craftsmanship up close.
A low-maintenance perennial, wild geranium serves as ideal ground cover for moist areas.

This low-maintenance herbaceous perennial forms low-growing, slow-spreading clumps of pretty palmately lobed leaves. The colonies make an ideal ground cover in the moist open spaces of a runoff area and require little maintenance.

Adorable pink blooms appear in the late spring and early summer, attracting many native solitary bees and syrphid flies, which offer beneficial pest control. The fibrous roots and shallow taproot hold upper soil layers in place after heavy rain events, making it a nice complement to deep-rooted companions.

Nodding Onion (Allium cernuum)

Groups of nodding purple flower buds, adorned with yellow and purple hues. Each bud holds the promise of imminent bloom, capturing the beauty of nature's anticipation. In the background, tall grasses provide a soft, blurred canvas for this vibrant display.
Nodding onion thrives in various garden spots, including sunny rain gardens.

This hardy, easy-to-grow perennial is widely adaptable to many sites in your garden, including sunny parts of a rain garden. It grows wild near streambanks and open areas throughout the  United States. 

The “nodding” allium blooms droop downward to protect nectar from heavy rains. It is just 8-18” tall and sturdy, making it a durable, low-maintenance addition to areas exposed to heavy wind or rain. It’s best to plant nodding onion with other perennials to hide foliage when it withers in late summer.

Foxglove Beardtongue (Penstemon digitalis)

A close-up of light purple foxglove beardtongue flowers on deep purple stems. Each delicate flower displays a tubular shape, radiating a soft hue. In the blurred backdrop, lush dark green foliage complements the blossoms.
This plant grows in various rain garden conditions, boasting tall, striking tubular spikes.

The tall tubular spikes of beardtongue provide a striking display for a plant that is so low-maintenance. Foxglove beardtongue tolerates both wet and dry soil, adapting to a wide range of locations within a rain garden. This southern native plant particularly shines in areas with lots of clay and poor drainage. It doesn’t mind heat or drought and attracts hummingbirds during the summer.

Black-Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta)

Two vibrant Black-Eyed Susans in full bloom, each with a dark center and golden-yellow petals. The flowers possess a striking contrast between their deep centers and bright edges. Behind them, a soft blur of foliage frames the sunny scene.These bright yellow flowers can endure diverse conditions.

Black-eyed Susans seem to fit into just about every area of the garden. From pollinator and cottage gardens to ornamental beds to wildflower prairies and, yes, rain gardens, this is one of the most versatile and beautiful native species you can grow. It is technically only indigenous to a few states but has widely naturalized throughout the U.S. 

From wet soil to long droughts, it doesn’t mind extremes and reliably produces bright yellow daisy-like flowers to liven up rain garden plantings. This is one of the most resilient plants I’ve ever grown, and it practically thrives on neglect.

Pacific Bleeding Heart (Dicentra formosa)

 In a close-up, pink Pacific bleeding heart flowers hang delicately from a slender stem, boasting heart-shaped petals. Each bloom carries elegance and intricate details, while the blurred background unveils lush green foliage, creating a serene atmosphere.
Pacific bleeding hearts adapt well to wet conditions and protect the soil with their deep rhizomes.

The delicate heart-shaped drooping flowers of bleeding hearts are dazzling in shady western rain gardens. This lush perennial is well-adjusted to wet weather and thrives beneath the canopy of taller plants.

The extensive deep rhizomes protect soil from erosion and help the plant withstand harsh winters. It is native to the Pacific Northwest but can be grown in shady, temperate rain gardens in similar climates.

Goldenrod (Solidago spp.)

A vibrant scene of goldenrod flowers, their yellow blossoms forming a sea of warmth. The sun-kissed petals sway gracefully in the breeze, creating a lively display of nature's brilliance.
This resilient wildflower tolerates various soil types and moisture levels.

You’ve probably noticed the bright golden-yellow spikes of goldenrod flowers blooming in late summer and fall across large swathes of pastures, prairies, and even swamps. This classic wildflower is widely adapted to North American gardens and is very forgiving of different conditions. Low-nutrient, dry soil? No problem. Poorly drained clay? Totally fine! Wet soil? Drought? No issue. 

Goldenrod is often so willing to thrive in rain gardens that you must divide it every 2-3 years to control its spread. The flowers are particularly beneficial to bees, wasps, and butterflies. While some accuse goldenrod of causing seasonal allergies, its doppelganger ragweed is the real culprit. Still, some hybrids are available with sterile seed sand reduced pollen production.

Common Camas (Camassia quamash)

A close-up of common camas flowers in a vibrant purple hue, their petals gracefully unfurling. The sunlight highlights the intricate details of each bloom, creating a mesmerizing display in the natural setting.
Common camas thrives in rain gardens due to its love for consistent moisture.

This western native wildflower produces striking purple star-like flowers from bulbous roots. The bulbs form shallow clumps that easily naturalize amongst grass and other groundcovers.

They enjoy the consistent moisture of a rain garden and go dormant during the summer to withstand drought. The plant naturally grows wild in moist meadows and along rivers and streams. Be sure to plant in the fall so there is ample moisture to help camas get established. 

Joe-Pye-Weed (Eutrochium spp.)

Muted pink Joe-Pye-weed flowers stand tall against a backdrop of lush green leaves. The soft hues create a harmonious display, blending nature's elegance with a subtle palette of pink and green.
Joe-Pye-weed’s hardiness withstands both wet and dry environments, offering winter allure.

This tall, robust plant is one of the more popular rain garden selections because it handles excess moisture with grace. The large, hardy plants love wet, rich soil and produce gorgeous pink flowers that attract a vast diversity of butterflies.

Yet they also tolerate dry conditions and provide nice winter interest with their unique seed heads. Despite its name, Joe Pye weed is not weedy and often becomes a showstopping favorite in rain gardens.

Coreopsis (Coreopsis spp.)

A close-up of a yellow coreopsis flower blooms on a slender green stem. Adjacent to it, more coreopsis flowers and buds appear, set against a blurred backdrop of lush greenery, emphasizing the floral abundance.
These flowers thrive in varying conditions, offering erosion prevention with their slow-spreading rhizomatous roots.

Sometimes called tickseed, coreopsis is an extremely adaptable wildflower that prefers moist soil but tolerates some drought. The rhizomatous root systems spread slowly, forming nice ground cover to prevent soil erosion. The sunshine-yellow flowers appear in spring and summer. Choose from annual or perennial varieties native to your region.

Deer Fern (Blechnum spicant)

A deer fern, its green fronds, and textured leaves spread across the mossy ground. The fronds arch gracefully, catching the sunlight and creating a glossy sheen, adding depth and texture to the forest floor.Deer fern thrives in shady, wet spots, anchoring soil in rain gardens.

If your rain garden is stuck in the shadows of your house or a tree, deer fern is a remarkable choice for occupying the low-light area and holding soil in place.

Ferns love moisture, acidic soil, and rich decomposing organic matter. This species is native to northern zones and stays fairly compact at just 2 feet wide and tall. It enjoys consistent water exposure and tolerates occasional puddling as well.

Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

A single purple coneflower in close-up, exhibiting slender, slightly drooping petals surrounding a spiky orange-brown center. The flower stands tall on a sturdy stem amidst a blurred backdrop of more coneflowers in a lush garden.
Purple coneflower flourishes in well-drained, sloping rain gardens with rapid drainage.

The famous echinacea wildflower is native to the eastern and southern states, thriving in the well-drained sandy or rocky soils of prairies and open woods.

This perennial works best on a sloping rain garden in regions that receive large rushes of rain at once and dry quickly. It won’t tolerate standing water, but it readily withstands drought. Don’t plant coneflowers in the lowest point of a rain garden, or they may rot.

Fiber Optic Grass (Isolepis cernua)

Graceful fiber optic grasses sway in the breeze, their slender green blades dancing rhythmically. Atop each delicate blade, small tufts of ethereal white filaments resemble dainty plumes, adding a whimsical touch to the verdant display.
This low-growing wetland plant thrives in moist, non-drying sandy or peaty soil.

This wetland grass has a fine texture and little brown flowers that interplant nicely in rain gardens near your front sidewalk. At just 10-14” tall and wide, fiber optic grass is stout, mounding, and hardy. It is native to some parts of the West Coast but adapts readily to wet places, particularly low-lying spots in your yard. It enjoys sandy or peaty soil that does not dry out.

Blazing Star (Liatris spp.)

A close-up of a cluster of purple blazing star flowers, each with slender petals, forms a striking display against a blurred background. Their rich color contrasts beautifully with the soft surroundings.
Blazing star brings both function and style to rain gardens with its whimsical blooms.

Also known as gayfeather, the whimsical blooms of Liatris are a pleasant surprise in a garden whose main function is to catch and filter rainwater. In the spirit of fashion, this flower lives up to the idea that functionality doesn’t mean we have to sacrifice style! 

There are many species in this genus, some of which prefer dry prairie conditions. However, Kansas gayfeather (L. pycnostachya) and dense blazing star (L. spicata) grow in moist prairies and wet marshes, making them suitable for depressed areas in your landscape.

Swamp White Oak (Quercus bicolor)

Swamp white oak leaves in red, green, yellow, and brown hues. The leaves are lobed, with rounded edges and pointed tips. Each leaf exhibits a unique mix of these rich autumnal colors.
This is great for expansive rain gardens in low-lying yards due to its deep roots.

An extra large rain garden in a low-lying yard should certainly consider a marsh-loving tree like swamp oak! This giant, well-shaped oak has gorgeous lobed leaves that turn orange-gold in the fall. It grows fairly slowly and enjoys some shade from a building, but it can reach up to 60 feet at maturity and penetrate amazingly deep roots into the soil. It tolerates both dry and wet conditions, even withstanding periods of standing water. 

Unfortunately, swamp white oak is not great for urban rain gardens because it doesn’t tolerate pollution well. It is much better suited to suburban or semi-rural settings. Beware that the fruit (acorns) can be messy in your yard.

River Birch (Betula nigra) 

Delicate yellow catkins hanging from the thin branches of a river birch tree. Bathed in the warm afternoon sun, the catkins sway gently, complemented by the surrounding green leaves.
River birch has absorbent roots ideal for managing rainwater near homes.

Another large rain garden option, this tall native tree can reach 60-80 feet and tolerates excessive water, which is why it’s so often found growing close to riverbanks. The bark shreds in pretty pink and red peels, and the roots form a mat-like structure that readily absorbs rainwater.

These trees are great for rain gardens near the home because the roots are not a threat to the foundation of your house and will not become invasive. Instead, they are extra absorptive of gutter and roof runoff.

Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor)

Blue flag iris blooms, their petals gracefully unfurling in a purple hue. Each flower stands tall, catching the sunlight, while the backdrop of swaying grasses adds a serene natural ambiance to the scene.
These grow in wet areas, tolerating soggy soil and even complete submergence during storms.

Last but not least, this gorgeous iris has to make the list of rain-collecting plants. The showy blue flowers and graceful sword-shaped leaves are a delight in any garden but particularly thrive in wet areas.

Native to northeastern wetlands, Blue Flag iris doesn’t mind soggy soil and even tolerates complete submergence in the event of a major storm event. It is easy to grow and slowly spreads by self-seeding and rhizomes.

Final Thoughts

Biodiversity is the key to success in any garden, but especially in rain gardens. Combine many different plants that can withstand a diversity of moisture conditions and provide varying heights of foliage for ornamental interest and water-slowing capacity. Most importantly, try to diversify the root depths from shallow fibrous root zones to ultra-deep taproots that will stabilize soil and accelerate water infiltration.

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